Assignment operators
The assignment operators are used to assign values ββto variables, like:
var x =11; // assign the value 11 to x
They Assign the value of the right side of the equal sign to the left of the equal sign.
Short form | Long form | |
= | x = y | x = y |
+= | x += y | x = x + y |
-= | x -= y | x = x – y |
*= | x *= y | x = x * y |
/= | x /= y | x = x / y |
%= | x %= y | x = x % y |
Arithmetic operators
The arithmetic operators are used to perform arithmetic operations with numbers.
+ | Addition |
– | Subtraction |
* | Multiplication |
/ | Division |
% | Modulus |
++ | Increment |
– – | Decrement |
For example, in algebra, multiplication and division have higher precedence than addition or subtraction.
++ and — operator
Called as unary operators,
The plus plus operator ++ (prefix), which increments by 1, and minus minus operator – – (postfix) which decrements by 1, can be used either after the variable name or before the variable name, like a++ or ++a.
a++
var a = 1; alert (a++); //The result will be: 1 alert (a); //The result will be: 2
++a
var a = 1; alert (++a); //The result will be: 2 alert (a); //The result will be: 2
The end result is the same in both cases, that the variable a=2, only the alert message was different!
String Operators
The + operator can also be used to concatenate strings.
When is used on strings, the + operator is named the concatenation operator.
Example:
var str1 = "Hello"; var str2 = "world" alert (str1 + " " +str2); //The result will be: Hello world
Adding a number to a string will return a string:
var a = "Hello"; var b = 5; alert (a + b); //The result will be: Hello5
Comparison and Logical Operators
== | equal |
=== | equal as value and type (strict equality) |
!= | not equal |
!== | not equal as value or type (strict unequal) |
&& | logical and |
|| | logical or |
> | greater than |
< | less than |
>= | greater or equal |
<= | less or equal |
? | ternary |
= Assignement
== Equality
=== Strict equality
!!!One of the most common mistakes is to use the assignment operator instead of the equality operator, like:
var a = 1; var b = 2; if (a = b){ alert("They are equal"); //The code in the if statement will always be executed }
This is an assignment and returns true, therefore the code in the if statement will always be executed!
Properly is to use the equality operator:
var a = 1; var b = 1; if (a == b){ alert("They are equal"); //The result will be: They are equal } else { alert("They are not equal"); }
But if we compare a numerical value to a string using the equality operator, the result will be the same, because they have same value:
var a = 1; var b = "1"; if (a == b){ alert("They are equal"); //The result will be: They are equal } else { alert("They are not equal"); }
If we want to o check if they have the same value and the same type, we must use the strict equality operator, like:
var a = 1; var b = "1"; if (a === b){ alert("They are equal"); } else { alert("They are not equal"); //The result will be: They are not equal }
In other words, this means that they are not just equal, they are identical!
? ternary operator
condition ? true : false
The ternary operator which is not very common, is similar to an if/else statement, the difference is that we can condense the code into a single line:
Example:
var a = 3; if ( (a%2) == 0){ alert ("a is an even number"); } else{ alert ("a is not an even number"); //The result will be: a is not an even number }
is similar with:
var a = 3; ((a%2) == 0) ? alert ("a is an even number") : alert ("a is not an even number"); //The result will be: a is not an even number
Type Operators
Can be used to find the data type of a JavaScript variable.
typeof | returns the type of a variable |
instanceof | returns true if an object is an instance of an object class |